A multi-methodological approach to studying time-pressure in written translation: Manipulation and measurement
Keywords:Time pressure, manipulation and measurement, multi-methodological approach, Cognitive Translation Studies
The effect of time pressure on task performance of written translation has been researched since the 1990s. However, little attention has been paid to the methodological issues of manipulating and measuring time pressure in these empirical studies. To bridge this gap, we propose a methodological framework involving diverse approaches to time-pressure manipulation and measurement. Specifically, in addition to objectively constraining the time frame for a task, we present three subjective time-pressure manipulation strategies: giving pre-task instructions about time, increasing participants’ intrinsic motivation for the task, and visualizing the elapse of time. Meanwhile, a range of feasible methods of time-pressure measurement is structured from the physiological, psychological and behavioural perspectives. This includes physiological measures such as galvanic skin response, heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation and salivary cortisol test, psychological measures such as psychometric instruments and retrospective questionnaires, and behavioural measures such as eye movements and keystroke activities. Based on a thorough survey of existing studies and the merits borrowed from neighbouring disciplines, this article aims to strengthen and enrich the methodology of time-pressure studies and benefit future translation research on relevant topics.
AIIC (International Association of Conference Interpreters). (2002). Interpreter workload study: Full report. https://aiic.net/page/657/interpreter-workload-study-full-report/lang/1
Allen, A. P., Kennedy, P. J., Cryan, J. F., Dinan, T. G., & Clarke, G. (2014). Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: Focus on the Trier Social Stress Test. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 38, 94–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.11.005
Alves, F., & Liparini, C. T. (2009). Translation technology in time: Investigating the impact of translation memory systems and time pressure on types of internal and external support. In S. Göpferich, A. L. Jakobsen, & I. M. Mees (Eds.), Behind the mind: Methods, models and results in translation process research (pp. 191–218). Samfundslitteratur.
Aston-Jones, G., & Cohen, J. D. (2005). An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403–450. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.28.061604.135709
Baghi, H., & Khoshsaligheh, M. (2019). Stress in written and sight translation in training setting. Hikma, 18(2), 237–255. https://doi.org/10.21071/hikma.v18i2.11539
Bayer-Hohenwarter, G. (2009). Methodological reflections on the experimental design of time-pressure studies. Across Languages and Cultures, 10(2), 193–206. https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.10.2009.2.2
Brown, T. M., & Miller, C. E. (2000). Communication networks in task-performing groups: Effects of task complexity, time pressure, and interpersonal dominance. Small Group Research, 31(2), 131–157. https://doi.org/10.1177/104649640003100201
Chiang, Y. N. (2010). Foreign language anxiety and student interpreters’ learning outcomes: Implications for the theory and measurement of interpretation learning anxiety. Meta, 55(3), 589–601. https://doi.org/10.7202/045079ar
De Dreu, C. K. (2003). Time pressure and closing of the mind in negotiation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 91(2), 280–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-5978(03)00022-0
De Rooze, B. (2003). La traducción, contra reloj [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Granada.
Dobson, C. B. (1982). Stress: The hidden adversary. MTP Press.
Furlan, S., Agnoli, F., & Reyna, V. F. (2016). Intuition and analytic processes in probabilistic reasoning: The role of time pressure. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.11.006
Ghobadi, M., Madadi, G., & Najafian, B. (2017). A study of the effects of time pressure on translation quantity and quality. International Journal of Comparative Literature and Translation Studies, 5(2), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijclts.v.5n.2p.7
Halverson, S. (2010). Cognitive translation studies: Developments in theory and method. In G. Shreve & E. Angelone (Eds.), Translation and cognition (pp. 349–369). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/ata.xv.18hal
Hansen, G. (2002a). Selbstaufmerksamkeit im Übersetzungsprozess. In G. Hansen (Ed.), Empirical translation studies: Process and product (pp. 9–27). Samfundslitteratur.
Hansen, G. (2002b). Zeit und Qualität im Übersetzungsprozess. In G. Hansen (Ed.), Empirical translation studies: Process and product (pp. 29–54). Samfundslitteratur.
Hansen, G. (2006). Time pressure in translation teaching and translation studies. Interdisciplinarité en Traduction, 2, 71–80.
Henckens, M. J., Hermans, E. J., Pu, Z., Joëls, M., & Fernández, G. (2009). Stressed memories: How acute stress affects memory formation in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(32), 10111–10119. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1184-09.2009
Hönig, H. (1998). Sind dolmetscher bessere übersetzer. Jahrbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 24, 323–344.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.2307/327317
Jensen, A. (1999). Time pressure in translation. In G. Hansen (Ed.), Probing the process in translation: Methods and results (pp. 103–119). Samfundslitteratur.
Jensen, A. (2000). The effects of time on cognitive processes and strategies in translation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Copenhagen Business School.
Jensen, A., & Jakobsen, A. L. (2000). Translating under time pressure: An empirical investigation of problem-solving activity and translation strategies by non-professional and professional translators. In A. Chesterman, N. G. S. Salvador, & Y. Gambier (Eds.), Translation in context: Selected contributions from the EST congress, Granada 1998 (Vol. 39, pp. 105–116). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.39.13jen
Kirschbaum, C., & Hellhammer, D. (1994). Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: Recent developments and applications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 19(4), 313–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4530(94)90013-2
Klonowicz, T. (1994). Putting one’s heart into simultaneous interpretation. In S. Lambert & B. Moser-Mercer (Eds.), Bridging the gap: Empirical research in simultaneous interpretation (pp. 213–224). John Benjamins.
Korpal, P. (2016). Interpreting as a stressful activity: Physiological measures of stress in simultaneous interpreting. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52(2), 297–316. https://doi.org/10.1515/psicl-2016-0011
Korpal, P., & Jasielska, A. (2018). Investigating interpreters’ empathy: Are emotions in simultaneous interpreting contagious? Target, 31(1), 2–24. https://doi.org/10.1075/target.17123.kor
Kourouni, K. (2012). Translating under time constraints in an undergraduate context: A study of students’ products, processes and learning styles [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Kurz, I. (2002). Physiological stress responses during media and conference interpreting. In G. Garzone & M. Viezzi (Eds.), Interpreting in the 21st century (pp. 195–202). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.43.19kur
Kurz, I. (2003). Physiological stress during simultaneous interpreting: A comparison of experts and novices. The Interpreters’ Newsletter, 12, 51–67.
Maule, A. J., Hockey, G. R. J., & Bdzola, L. (2000). Effects of time-pressure on decision-making under uncertainty: Changes in affective state and information processing Strategy. Acta Psychologica, 104(3), 283–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-6918(00)00033-0
McEwen, B. S. (2007). Stress, definitions and concepts of. In G. Fink (Ed.), Encyclopedia of stress (2nd ed., pp. 653). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00364-0
Minkel, J., & Phillips, S. (2015). Methodological considerations when integrating experimental manipulations of sleep and emotion. In K. A. Babson & M. T. Feldner (Eds.), Sleep and affect: Assessment, theory, and clinical implications (pp. 119–138). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417188-6.00006-2
Moser-Mercer, B. (2003). Remote interpreting: Assessment of human factors and performance parameters. Joint project, International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Ecole de traduction et interprétation, University of Geneva.
Moser-Mercer, B. (2005). Remote interpreting: The crucial role of presence. Bulletin VALS-ASLA (Swiss Association of Applied Linguistics), 81, 73–97.
Moser-Mercer, B., Künzli, A., & Korac, M. (1998). Prolonged turns in interpreting: Effects on quality, physiological and psychological stress (Pilot study). Interpreting, 3(1), 47–64. https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.3.1.03mos
Qin, S., Hermans, E. J., van Marle, H. J., Luo, J., & Fernández, G. (2009). Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Biological Psychiatry, 66(1), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.03.006
Rastegary, H., & Landy, F. J. (1993). The Interactions among time urgency, uncertainty, and time pressure. In A. J. Maule & O. Svenson (Eds.), Time pressure and stress in human judgment and decision making (pp. 217–239). Plenum Press.
Rattat, A. C., Matha, P., & Cegarra, J. (2018). Time flies faster under time pressure. Acta psychologica, 185, 81–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.014
Rendón-Vélez, E., Horváth, I., & Vegte, W. F. V. d. (2016). Motivating subjects to drive in haste using time pressure in a simulated environment. International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology, 8(1–2), 99–124. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJCAET.2016.073264
Seeber, K. G. (2013). Cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting: Measures and methods. Target, 25(1), 18–32. https://doi.org/10.1075/target.25.1.03see
Selye, H. (1976). The stress of life (Rev. ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Sharmin, S., Špakov, O., Räihä, K.-J., & Jakobsen, A. L. (2008). Where and for how long do translators look at the screen while translating? In S. Göpferich, A. Jakobsen, & I. Mees (Eds.), Looking at eyes: Eye-tracking studies of reading and translation processing (pp. 31–51). Samfundslitteratur.
Shirtcliff, E. A., Buck, R. L., Laughlin, M. J., Hart, T., Cole, C. R., & Slowey, P. D. (2015). Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays. Clinical Therapeutics, 37, 505–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.02.014
Slavich, G. M., Taylor, S., & Picard, R. W. (2019). Stress measurement using speech: Recent advancements, validation issues, and ethical and privacy considerations. Stress, 22(4), 408–413. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890.2019.1584180
Spielberger, C. D. (Ed.). (1972). Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research. Elsevier.
Stuhlmacher, A. F., & Champagne, M. V. (2000). The impact of time pressure and information on negotiation process and decisions. Group Decision and Negotiation, 9(6), 471–491. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008736622709
Wang, J. T.-y., Spezio, M., & Camerer, C. F. (2010). Pinocchio's pupil: Using eyetracking and pupil dilation to understand truth-telling and deception in Sender-Receiver Games. American Economic Review, 100(3), 984–1007. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.100.3.984
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.523
Young, D. L., Goodie, A. S., Hall, D. B., & Wu, E. (2012). Decision making under time pressure, modeled in a prospect theory framework. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118(2), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.03.005
Zakay, D. (1993). The impact of time perception processes on decision making under time stress. In O. Svenson & A. J. Maule (Eds.), Time pressure and stress in human judgment and decision making (pp. 59–72). Plenum Press.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 Deed that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. The material cannot be used for commercial purposes.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).