Wartime interpreting during the Sino-Dutch War (1661–1662)

Pin-ling Chang

Abstract


While wartime interpreting has become a research focus in very recent years, little research has explored on-the-battleground interpreting for warring sides in pre-modern times. By examining the Dutch East India Company (VOC) archival resources and other relevant historical documents, this study discusses interpreting practices during the Sino-Dutch War (1661–1662) in seventeenth-century colonial Taiwan, with a focus on interpreters’ backgrounds, functions and status, issues of loyalty and trust, and interpreters and translation as a tool of manipulation and power struggles. The overview of the interpreters and the interpreting practices in pre-modern wartime viewed against our present experience shows both differences and similarities in wartime interpreting between the past and the present; it also indicates that although the importance of interpreters has been increasingly recognized, they have remained a symbol of both relief and distrust since ancient times.

Keywords


wartime interpreting; status of interpreters; loyalty of interpreters; Sino-Dutch War; Dutch Taiwan; Koxinga; Philip Meij; Pinqua

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adelaar, A. (2007). Siraya, Taiwan's oldest written language. In C. Storm & M. Harrison (Eds.), The margins of becoming: Identity and culture in Taiwan (pp. 19–34). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Alarcón, N. (1989). Traddutora, traditora: A paradigmatic figure of Chicana feminism. Cultural Critique, 13, 57–87.

Alonso Araguás, I., & Baigorri Jalón, J. (2004). Iconography of interpreters in the conquest of the Americas. TTR, 17(1), 129–153.

Andrade, T. (2007). Chinese under European rule: The case of Sino-Dutch mediator He Bin. Late Imperial China, 28(1), 1–32.

Andrade, T. (2008). How Taiwan became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han colonization in the seventeenth century. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Andrade, T. (2011). Lost colony: The untold story of China’s first great victory over the West. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Apter, E. (2006). The translation zone: A new comparative literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Aveling, H., & Yamada, T. S. (2009). Southeast Asian traditions. In M. Baker & G. Saldanha (Eds.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (2nd ed., pp. 527–533). London: Routledge.

Baker, M. (2010). Interpreters and translators in the war zone: Narrated and narrators. The Translator, 16(2), 197–222.

Ballinger, P. (2004). “Authentic hybrids” in the Balkan borderlands. Current Anthropology, 45(1), 31–60.

Bandia, P. (2009). African tradition. In M. Baker & G. Saldanha (Eds.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (2nd ed., pp. 313–320). London: Routledge.

Bartov, O. (1992). Hitler’s army: Soldiers, Nazis, and war in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bastin, G. L. (2009). Latin American tradition. In M. Baker & G. Saldanha (Eds.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (2nd ed., pp. 486–492). London: Routledge.

Beebee, T. O. (2010). Shoot the translator!: The translator as homo sacer in fiction and reality. The Translator, 16(2), 295–313.

Blusse, L., & Everts, N. (Eds.). (2006). The Formosan encounter. Notes on Formosa’s aboriginal society: A selection of documents from Dutch archival sources (Vol. III: 1646–1654). Taipei: Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines.

Blusse, L., & Everts, N. (Eds.). (2010). The Formosan encounter. Notes on Formosa’s aboriginal society: A selection of documents from Dutch archival sources (Vol. IV: 1655–1668). Taipei: Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines.

Blusse, L., Everts, N., & Frech, E. (Eds.). (1999). The Formosan encounter. Notes on Formosa’s aboriginal society: A selection of documents from Dutch archival sources (Vol. I: 1623–1635). Taipei: Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines.

Blusse, L., Everts, N., Milde, W. E., & Ts’ao, Y. (Eds.). (2000). De dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan, 1629–1662: Deel IV: 1655–1662. The Hague: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis.

Borao Mateo, J. E. (2009). The Spanish experience in Taiwan, 1626–1642: The baroque ending of a Renaissance endeavor. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Bowen, M., Bowen, D., Kaufmann, F., & Kurz, I. (1995). Interpreters and the making of history. In J. Delisle & J. Woodsworth (Eds.), Translators through history (pp. 245–273). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Campbell, W. (1903). Formosa under the Dutch, described from contemporary records: With explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

Chang, P. (2014). The political and diplomatic significance of interpreters/translators in seventeenth-century colonial Taiwan. In F. M. Federici & D. Tessicini (Eds.), Translators, interpreters, and cultural negotiators: Mediating and communicating power from the Middle Ages to the modern era (pp. 136–154). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chen, B. 陳碧笙. (2000). 鄭成功歷史研究 [Koxinga historical research]. Beijing: Jiuzhou Press.

Cheng, S. 程紹剛. (Ed.). (2000). De VOC en Formosa 1624–1662. Taipei: Linking Publishing.

Chiang, S. 江樹生. (Ed.). (1999/1986). 熱蘭遮城日誌第一冊 (Translated into Chinese. Original De dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629–1662, Deel I: 1629–1641, 1986) (Shu-sheng Chiang, Trans., Annot. and Ed.). Tainan, Taiwan: Tainan City Government.

Chiang, S. 江樹生. (Ed.). (2002/1995). 熱蘭遮城日誌第二冊 (Translated into Chinese. Original De dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629–1662, Deel II: 1641–1648, 1995) (Shu-sheng Chiang, Trans., Annot. and Ed.). Tainan, Taiwan: Tainan City Government.

Chiang, S. 江樹生. (Ed.). (2003/1996). 熱蘭遮城日誌第三冊 (Translated into Chinese. Original De dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629–1662, Deel III: 1648–1655, 1996) (Shu-sheng Chiang, Trans., Annot. and Ed.). Tainan, Taiwan: Tainan City Government.

Chiang, S. 江樹生. (2003/1662). 梅氏日記: 荷蘭土地測量師看鄭成功 [Journal of Philip Meij: A Dutch land surveyor's portrait of Koxinga] (Translated into Chinese. Original Daghregister van Philip Meij, 1662) (Shu-sheng Chiang, Trans., Annot. and Ed.). Taipei: Echo Magazine.

Chiu, H. (2008). The colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa 1624–1662. Leiden: Brill.

Coyett, F. (1975/1675). Neglected Formosa: A translation from the Dutch of Frederic Coyett’s ’t Verwaerloosde Formosa (Translated into English. Original ’t Verwaerloosde Formosa, 1675) (Inez de Beauclair, Trans. and Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Chinese Materials Center.

Cronin, M. (2002). The empire talks back: Orality, heteronomy and the cultural turn in interpreting studies. In F. Pöchhacker & M. Shlesinger (Eds.), The interpreting studies reader (pp. 386–397). London: Routledge.

Cronin, M. (2006). Translation and identity. London: Routledge.

Dragovic-Drouet, M. (2007). The practice of translation and interpreting during the conflicts in former Yugoslavia (1991–1999). In M. Salama-Carr (Ed.), Translating and interpreting conflict (pp. 29–40). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Footitt, H., & Kelly, M. (2012). Introduction. In H. Footitt & M. Kelly (Eds.), Languages at war: Policies and practices of language contacts in conflict (pp. 1–15). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hsü, I. C. Y. (1995). The rise of modern China (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hung, E. (2005). Cultural borderlands in China’s translation history. In E. Hung (Ed.), Translation and cultural change: Studies in history, norms, and image projection (pp. 43–64). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Inghilleri, M. (2009). Translators in war zones: Ethics under fire in Iraq. In E. Bielsa & C. Hughes (Eds.), Globalization, political violence and translation (pp. 207–221). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jacquemet, M. (2010). The registration interview: Restricting refugees’ narrative69 performance. In M. Baker (Ed.), Critical readings in translation studies (pp. 133–151). London: Routledge.

Jiang, R. 江日昇. (1958/1704). 台灣外記 [A supplemental history of Taiwan]. Taipei: Economic Research Office, Bank of Taiwan.

Kelly, M., & Baker, C. (2013). Interpreting the peace: Peace operations, conflict and language in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kurz, I. (1985). The rock tombs of the princes of Elephantine: Earliest references to interpretation in Pharaonic Egypt. Babel, 31(4), 213–218.

Lefevere, A., Rodriguez, L. A., Ballard, M., Pym, A., Foz, C., Simon, S., de Russel, D. J. M. S., Talbot, G., & Touitou-Benitah, C. (1995). Translators and the reins of power. In J. Delisle & J. Woodsworth (Eds.), Translators through history (pp. 131–155). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Li, N. 黎難秋. (2002). 中國口譯史 China interpretation history. Qingdao: Qingdao.

Lin, H. 林漢達., & Cao, Y. 曹余章. (Eds.). (2002). 上下五千年(新版) [Up and down through five thousand years (new edition)]. Shanghai: Juvenile & Children’s Publishing House.

Mackay, G. L. (1895). From far Formosa: The island, its people and missions (4th ed.). New York, NY: Fleming H. Revell.

Maier, C. (2007). The translator’s visibility: The rights and responsibilities thereof. In M. Salama-Carr (Ed.), Translating and interpreting conflict (pp. 253–266). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Meij, P. (2003/1662). Daghregister van Philip Meij. In S. Chiang 江樹生 (Ed.), 梅氏日記: 荷蘭土地測量師看鄭成功 [Journal of Philip Meij: A Dutch land surveyor’s portrait of Koxinga] (pp. rear 1–64). Taipei: Echo Magazine.

Mirandé, A., & Enríquez, E. (1979). La Chicana: The Mexican American woman. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Palmer, J. (2007). Interpreting and translation for Western media in Iraq. In M. Salama-Carr (Ed.), Translating and interpreting conflict (pp. 13–28). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Rafael, V. (2010). Translation in wartime. In M. Baker (Ed.), Critical readings in translation studies (pp. 383–390). London: Routledge.

Roditi, E. (1982). Interpreting: Its history in a nutshell. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, National Resource Center for Translation and Interpretation Outreach Paper.

Shepherd, J. R. (1993). Statecraft and political economy on the Taiwan frontier, 1600–1800. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Stahuljak, Z. (2010a). War, translation, transnationalism: Interpreters in and of the war (Croatia, 1991–1992). In M. Baker (Ed.), Critical readings in translation studies (pp. 391–414). London: Routledge.

Stahuljak, Z. (2010b). Minor empires: Translation, conflict, and postcolonial critique. The Translator, 16(2), 255–274.

Takeda, K. (2009). War and interpreters. Across Languages and Cultures, 10(1), 49–62.

Wong, L. W. (2007). Translators and interpreters during the Opium War between Britain and China (1839–1842). In M. Salama-Carr (Ed.), Translating and interpreting conflict (pp. 41–57). Amsterdam: Rodopi.