Computer-based collaborative revision as a virtual lab of translation genetics

Giovanna Scocchera


Introducing revision as a key stage of any writing process, including translation, this paper aims at underlining its role in the genetics of translation. Other-revision, i.e. the activity performed by a reviser on someone else’s translation, will be the focus of this paper, whose overall objective is to show that when performed in a collaborative modality, revision may prove a miniature, virtual lab of translation genetics. With the aid of computer tools already available, and new ad-hoc solutions hopefully to be developed, all reviser-translator interplay in the form of text changes, suggestions and comments can be visually tracked, recorded and thus become an object of study. Besides being an invaluable didactic tool and a hoped-for professional practice, computer-based collaborative revision may prove a valid method for data elicitation and collection, and for experimental investigation in the field of translation genetics.


other-revision; collaborative revision; computer-based tools;

Full Text:



Allal, L., Chanquoy, L., & Largy, P. (2004). Revision: Cognitive and instructional processes. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Barbosa, H. G., & Neiva A. (2003). Using think-aloud protocols to investigate the translation process of foreign language learners and experienced translators. In F. Alves (Ed.), Triangulating translation: Perspectives in process oriented research (pp. 137–155). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Basso, S. (2010). Sul tradurre: Esperienze e divagazioni militanti. Milan: Bruno Mondadori Editore.

Bisaillon, J. (Ed.). (2007). La révision professionnelle: Processus, stratégies et pratiques. Québec, QC: Éditions Nota Bene.

Bogic, A. (2010). Uncovering the hidden actors with the help of Latour: The ‘making’ of the second sex. MonTI. Monografías de Traducción e Interpretación, 2, 173–192.

Breedveld, H. (2002). Writing and revising process in professional translation. Across Languages and Cultures, 3(1), 91–100.

Brunette, L. (2000). Towards a terminology for translation quality assessment: A comparison of TQA practices. The Translator, 6(2), 169–182.

Bryant, J. (2002). The fluid text: A theory of revision and editing for book and screen. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

Buzelin, H. (2007). Translations in the ‘making’. In M. Wolf & A. Fukari (Eds.), Constructing a sociology of translation (pp. 135–169). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Carmignani, I. (2008). Gli autori invisibili: Incontri sulla traduzione letteraria. Lecce: Besa.

Chakhachiro, R. (2005). Revision for quality. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 13(3), 225–238.

Chesnet, D., & Alamargot, D. (2005). Analyses en temps réel des activités oculaires et graphomotrices du scripteur: Intérêt du dispositif 'Eye and Pen'. L'Année Psychologique, 105(3), 477–520.

Chesterman, A., Dam, H.V., Engberg, J., & Schjoldager, A. (2003). Bananas – or names and definitions in translation studies. Hermes, Journal of Linguistics, 31, 197–209.

De Biasi, P-M. (2007). What is a literary draft?: Towards a functional typology of genetic documentation. Item. Retrieved from

De Biasi, P-M. (2011). La genetica testuale. Translated into Italian by Chiara Montini. Rome: Aracne Editrice.

Delisle, J. (1988). Translation: An interpretative approach. Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press.

Deppman, J., Ferrer, D., & Groden, M. (Eds.). (2004). Genetic criticism: Texts and avant-textes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Englund Dimitrova B. (2005). Expertise and explicitation in the translation process. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Filippalopoulou, M. (2008). Translation drafts and the translating self. In P. Nikolaou & M.V. Kyrtsi (Eds.), Translating selves: Experience and identity between languages and literatures (pp. 19–36). London: Continuum.

Fordoński, K. (2014). The art of translation and the art of editing. Komunikacja Specjalistyczna, 7, 167–173.

Gile, D. (1995). Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Göpferich, S., & Jääskeläinen, R. (2009). Process research into the development of translation competence: Where are we, and where do we need to go?. Across Languages and Cultures, 10(2), 169–191.

Hansen, G. (2009a). The speck in your brother's eye - the beam in your own: Quality management in translation and revision. In G. Hansen, A. Chesterman, & H. Gerzymisch-Arbogast (Eds.), Efforts and models in interpreting and translation research: A tribute to Daniel Gile (pp. 255–280). Amsterdam: John Benjamins..

Hansen, G. (2009b). A classification of errors in translation and revision. In M. Forstner, H. Lee-Jahnke, & P. Schmit (Eds.), CIUTI Forum 2008. Enhancing translation quality: Ways, means, methods (pp. 313–326). Bern: Peter Lang.

Hansen, G. (2010). Integrative description of translation processes. In G. M. Shreve & E. Angelone (Eds.), Translation and cognition (pp. 189–211). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hansen, G. (2013). Many tracks lead to the goal: A long-term study on individual translation styles. In C. Way, S. Vandepitte, R. Meylaerts, & M. Bartlomiejczyk, (Eds.), Tracks and treks in translation studies (pp. 49–62). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Harris, T. L., & Hodges, R. E. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Hay, L. (1988). Does ‘text’ exist? Studies in Bibliography, 41, 64–76.

Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In W. Gregg & R. Steinberg (Eds.). Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 3–30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hayes J. R. (1996). A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing (pp. 1–27). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hernández Morin, K. (2009a). Pratiques et perceptions de la révision en France. Traduire, 2(221), 58–78.

Hernández Morin, K. (2009b). La révision comme clé de la gestion de la qualité des traductions en contexte professionnel. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from:

Hine, J. T. (2003). Teaching text revision in a multilingual environment. In B. J. Baer, & G.S. Koby (Eds.), Beyond the ivory tower: Rethinking translation pedagogy (pp. 135–156). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Holmes, J. S. (1972). The name and nature of translation studies. In L. Venuti (Ed.), Translation studies reader (pp. 173–185). London: Routledge.

Horguelin, P. A., & Brunette, L. (1998). Pratique de la révision. Brossard, QC: Linguatech.

Horning A., & Becker A. (Ed.). (2006). Revision: History, theory and practice. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor.

Horning, A. S. (2002). Revision revisited. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Jones, F. (2006). Unlocking the black box: Researching poetry translation processes. In M. Perteghella & E. Loffredo (Eds.), Translation and creativity: Perspectives on creative writing and translation studies (p. 59–74). London: Continuum.

Kolb, W. (2013). Who are they?: Decision-making in literary translation. In C. Way, S. Vandepitte, R. Meylaerts, & M. Bartlomiejczyk, (Eds.), Tracks and treks in translation studies (pp. 207–221). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Kruger, H. (2008). Training editors in universities: Considerations, challenges and strategies. In J. Kearns (Ed.), Translator and interpreter training: Issues, methods and debates (pp. 39–65). London: Continuum.

Künzli, A. (2005) What principles guide translation revision?: A combined product and process study. In I. Kemble (Ed.), Translation norms: What is ‘normal’ in the translation profession? Proceedings of the 4th Translation Conference, University of Portsmouth, November 2004 (pp. 31–44). Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth, School of Languages and Area Studies.

Künzli, A. (2006). Teaching and learning translation revision: Some suggestions based on evidence from a think-aloud protocol study. In M. Garant (Ed.), Current trends in translation teaching and learning (pp. 9–24). Helsinki: Department of Translation Studies.

Künzli, A. (2007a). Translation revision: A study of the performance of ten professional translators revising a legal text. In Y. Gambier, M. Shlesinger, & R. Stolze (Eds.), Doubts and directions in translation studies: Selected contributions from the EST Congress, Lisbon 2004 (pp. 115–126). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Künzli, A. (2007b). The ethical dimension of translation revision: An empirical study. Journal of Specialized Translation, 8, 42–56.

Künzli, A. (2009). Qualität in der Übersetzungsrevision: Eine empirische Studie. In H. Kalverkämper & L.Schippel (Eds.), Translation zwischen Text und Welt: Translationswissenschaft als historische Disziplin zwischen Moderne und Zukunft (pp. 291–303). Berlin: Frank & Timme.

Künzli, A. (2014). Die Übersetzungsrevision: Begriffsklärungen, Foschungsstand, Forschungsdesiderate. Trans-kom, 7(1), 1–29.

Lee, H. (2006). Révision: Définitions et paramètres. Meta, 51(2), 410–419.

Manfrinato, C. (Ed.). (2008). Il mestiere di riflettere. Rome: Azimut.

Marco, J. (2007). The terminology of translation: Epistemological, conceptual and intercultural problems and their social consequences. Target, 19(2), 255–269.

Mossop, B. (1992). Goals of a revision course. In C. Dollerup & A. Loddegaard (Eds.), Teaching translation and interpreting: Training, talent and experience – Papers from the First Language International Conference, Elsinore, Denmark, 1991 (pp. 81–90). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mossop. B. (2001). Revising and editing for translators. Manchester: St. Jerome.

Mossop. B. (2014). Revising and editing for translators. 3rd Edition. Abingdon: Routledge.

Mossop, B. (2015). Readings on revision and editing. Online publication retrieved from

Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies: Theories and applications. London: Routledge.

Munday, J. (2013). The role of archival and manuscript research in the investigation of translator decision-making, Target, 25(1), 125–139.

Nida, E. A. (1964). Towards a science of translating: With special reference to principles and procedures involved in bible translating. Leiden: E.J.Brill.

Parra Galiano, S. (2007a). La revisión y otros procedimientos para el aseguramiento de la calidad de la traducción: Grados, tipos y modalidades de revisión. Senez, 32, 97–122.

Parra Galiano, S. (2007b). Propuesta metodológica para la revisión de traducciones: Principios generales y parámetros. Trans, 11, 197–214.

Paul, G. (Ed.). (2009). Translation in practice: A symposium. Champaign: Dalkey Archive.

Pavlović, N. (2009). More ways to explore the translating mind: collaborative translation protocols. In S. Göpferich, A. L. Jakobsen, & I. M. Mees (Eds.), Behind the mind: Methods, models and results in translation process research (pp. 81–105). Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.

Pavlović, T. (2013). The role of collaborative translation protocols (CTPs) in translation studies. Jezikoslovlje, 14(2–3), 549–563.

Petruccioli, D. (2014). Falsi d’autore: Guida pratica per orientarsi nel mondo dei libri tradotti. Macerata: Quodlibet.

Pym, A. (2011). Translation research terms: A tentative glossary for moments of perplexity and dispute. Translation Research Projects 3, Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group, 75–110. Retrieved from:

Reiss, K. (2000). Translation criticism – The potentials and limitations. Categories and criteria for translation quality assessment. Manchester: St. Jerome.

Robert, I. (2008). Translation revision procedures: An explorative study. In Translation and its Others: Selected papers of the CETRA Research Seminar in Translation Studies 2007. Online resource retrieved from:

Robert, I. (2012). La révision en traduction: Les procedures de révision et leur impact sur le produit et le processus de révision. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Retrieved from:

Robert, I. (2013). Translation revision: Does the revision procedure matter? In C. Way, S. Vandepitte, R. Meylaerts, & M. Bartlomiejczyk, (Eds.), Tracks and treks in translation studies: Selected papers from the EST Congress, Leuven 2010 (pp. 87–102). Amsterdam: John Benjamins,.

Robert, I. (2014). Investigating the problem-solving strategies of revisers through triangulation: An exploratory study. Translation and Interpreting Studies. The Journal of the American Translation and Interpreting Studies Association, 9(1), 88–108.

Rochard, M. (2002). La révision: Un acte pédagogique et économique. Online resource retrieved from:

Romanelli, S. (2013). Gênese do processo tradutório. Vinhedo: Horizonte.

Roussey, J. Y., & Piolat, A. (2008). Critical reading effort during text revision. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20(4), 765–792.

Schjoldager, A., Rasmussen, K. W., & Thomsen, C. (2008). Précis-writing, revision and editing: Piloting the European Master in Translation. Meta, 53(4), 798–813.

Séguinot, C. (1991). A study of student translation strategies. In S. Tirkkonen-Condit (Ed.), Empirical research in translation and intercultural studies (pp. 79–88). Tübingen: Narr.

Scocchera, G. (2015). La revisione della traduzione editoriale dall’inglese all’italiano tra ricerca accademica, professione e formazione: Stato dell’arte e prospettive future. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Bologna, Forlì Campus.

Shih, C. (2006). Revision from translators’ point of view: An interview study. Target, 18(2), 295–312.

Siponkoski, N. (2013) Translators as negotiators: A case study on the editing process related to contemporary Finnish translation of Shakespeare. New Voices in Translation Studies, 9, 20–37.

Sorvali, I. (1998). The translator as creative being with special regard to the translation of literature and LSP. Babel, 44(3), 234–243.

Šunková, J. (2011). Revising translations: Corpus investigation of revision and self-revision. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Toury, G. (1980). In search of a theory of translation. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute of Poetics and Semiotics.

Toury, G. (1995). Descriptive translation studies and beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.