Training in Accessible Filmmaking

Pablo Romero-Fresco

Abstract


Accessible filmmaking (AFM), that is, the integration of audiovisual translation (AVT) and media accessibility (MA) into the filmmaking process through collaboration between filmmakers and translators/MA experts, has developed significantly over the past few years. It has been endorsed by filmmakers such as Ken Loach and institutions such as the British Film Institute (BFI), which has decided to embrace it as a key element in the production of films and the training of future filmmakers. However, current training in AFM is at best anecdotal. This article aims to address this gap by proposing two different courses on AFM. By way of introduction, section 2 sets the background with an analysis of the reasons behind the division between film and AVT/MA. Special attention is paid to the invisibility of AVT/MA in Film Studies and to the new AVT/MA-aware notion of film that underpins the current proposal for AFM training. Sections 3 and 4 provide an overview of the training currently available in AVT/MA and film(-making). Finally, section 5 offers an account of the first pioneering attempts to provide AFM training and, most importantly, a proposed outline for two different courses designed to equip accessible filmmakers and translators/MA experts with the required skills and competences to apply the AFM model.


Keywords


accessible filmmaking, training course, Film Studies

Full Text:

PDF

References


AFNOR (2018) Information technology — User interface component accessibility — Part 23: Guidance on the visual presentation of audio information (including captions and subtitles). Geneva: ISO Copyright office.

Agost, R., Chaume, F., & Hurtado Albir, A. (1999). La traducción audiovisual. In A. Hurtado Albir (Ed.), Enseñar a traducir: Metodología en la formación de traductores e intérpretes (pp. 182–195). Madrid, Spain: Edelsa.

Barbash, I., & Taylor, L. (1997). Cross-cultural filmmaking: A handbook for making documentary and ethnographic films and videos. Los Angeles, LA: University of California Press.

Bartrina, F. (2001). La previsió del procés d’ajust com a estrategia de traducció per a l’ensenyament del doblatge. In F. Chaume & R. Agost (Eds.), La traducción en los medios audiovisuales (pp. 65–71). Castelló de la Plana, Spain: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.

Baudry, J.-L., & Williams, A. (1974). Ideological effects of the basic cinematographic apparatus. Film Quarterly, 28(2), 39–47. doi:10.2307/1211632

BFI. (2015) A framework for film education [website]. Retrieved from https://www.bfi.org.uk/sites/bfi.org.uk/files/downloads/bfi-a-framework-for-film-education-brochure-2015-06-12.pdf

Biggs, J. B. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Branson, J. (2017). Bringing media accessibility in from the cold: A comparative analysis of collaborative and standard approaches to AD and SDH for The Progression of Love (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Roehampton, London.

Branson, J. (2018, June). Bridging the maker-user gap: The case of the Italian short film Acquario. Paper presented at Understanding Media Accessibility Quality (UMAQ) Conference, Barcelona, Spain. Abstract retrieved from http://pagines.uab.cat/umaq/sites/pagines.uab.cat.umaq/files/UMAQ_files/conference/umaq_conference_book_of_abstracts_final.pdf

Branson, J. (2019, June). Who’s DAT?: Director of Accessibility and Translation as a (new) professional figure in filmmaking. Paper presented at Media for All 8. Stockholm, Stockholm. Abstract retrieved from https://www.tolk.su.se/english/media-for-all-8/programme/abstracts

Cerezo Merchán, B. (2012). La didáctica de la traducción audiovisual en España: Un estudio de caso empírico-descriptivo (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana. Retrieved from http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/83363

Cerezo Merchán, B. (2019). Audiovisual translator training. In L. Pérez-González (ed.), The Routledge handbook of audiovisual translation (pp. 468–483). London, England: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315717166-29

Cerezo Merchán, B., de Higes Andino, I., Galán, E., & Arnau Roselló, R. (2017). Montaje audiovisual e integración de la audiodescripción en la producción documental. In J. J. Martínez Sierra & B. Cerezo Merchán (Eds.), inTRAlinea Special Issue: Building bridges between Film Studies and Translation Studies, p.e1. Retrieved from http://www.intralinea.org/specials/article/montaje_audiovisual_e_integracion_de_la_audiodescripcion

Chaume, F. (2018). An overview of audiovisual translation: Four methodological turns in a mature discipline. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 1(1), 40–63. Retrieved from http://www.jatjournal.org/index.php/jat/article/view/43/3

Cole, A. (2015). Good morning, grade one: Language ideologies and multilingualism within primary education in rural Zambia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Cole, A. (2016). Colours of the alphabet. Scotland: Nick Higgins. Retrieved from http://coloursofthealphabet.com/about-the-film

Crow, L. (2005). Making film accessible, Roaring Girl Productions. Retrieved from http://www.roaring-girl.com/work/making-film-accessible/

Dangerfield, K. (2017, March). Accessible film project: Mentors, equipment, sight and sound, sense Blog [Blog]. Retrieved from https://blog.sense.org.uk/2017/03/accessible-film-project-mentors-equipment-sight-and-sound/

Dangerfield, K. (2018, June). The value of difference in Media Accessibility Quality. Paper presented at Understanding Media Accessibility Quality (UMAQ) Conference, Barcelona, Spain. Abstract retrieved from http://pagines.uab.cat/umaq/sites/pagines.uab.cat.umaq/files/UMAQ_files/conference/umaq_conference_book_of_abstracts_final.pdf

De Higes Andino, I., & Cerezo Merchán, B. (2018). Using evaluation criteria and rubrics as learning tools in subtitling for the D/deaf and the hard of hearing. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 12(1), 68–88. doi:10.1080/1750399X.2017.1418809

Delisle, J. (1980). L’Analyse du discours comme méthode de traduction: Initiation à la traduction française de textes pragmatiques anglais: Théorie et pratique. Ottawa, ON: Éditions de l’Université d’Ottawa.

Díaz-Cintas, J. (2008). Teaching and learning to subtitle in an academic environment. In J. Díaz-Cintas (ed.), The didactics of audiovisual translation (pp. 89–105). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.77.10dia

Díaz Cintas, J., Mas, J., & Orero Clavero, P. (2006). Reflexiones en torno a la enseñanza de la traducción audiovisual en España. Propuestas de futuro. In N. A. Perdu Honeyman, M. A. García Peinado, F. J. García Marcos & E. Ortega Arjonilla (Eds.), Inmigración, cultura y traducción: Reflexiones interdisciplinares (pp. 560–566). Spain: Universidad de Almería.

Di Giovanni, E., & Gambier, Y. (Eds.). (2018). Reception studies and audiovisual translation. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.141

Dwyer, T., Perkins, C., Redmon, S., & Sita J. (2018). Seeing into screens: Eye tracking and the moving image. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic. doi:10.5040/9781501329012

Egoyan, A., & Balfour, I. (2004). Subtitles: On the foreignness of Film. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Eleftheriotis, D. (2010). Cinematic journeys: Film and movement. Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. doi:10.3366/edinburgh/9780748633128.001.0001

Elsaesser, T., & Hagener, M. (2015). Film theory: An introduction through the senses. New York, NY: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315740768

Espasa, E. (2001). La traducció per al teatre i per al doblatge a l’aula: Un laboratori de proves. In F. Chaume & R. Agost (Eds.), La traducción en los medios audiovisuales (pp. 57–64). Castelló de la Plana, Spain: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.

Estrada, A., Bellés Chorva, A., Churakova, E., Hideg, J., & Allard-Le-Berre, M. (Authors). (2014). Year Abroad: Make the most of it. [online]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3aLrcX2SUU

Flynn, N. (2016). An intimate encounter: Negotiating subtitled cinema. Open Library of Humanities, 2(1), p.e1. doi:10.16995/olh.14

Fox, W. (2016). Integrated titles: An improved viewing experience? In S. Hansen-Schirra & S. Grucza (Eds.), Eyetracking and applied linguistics (pp. 5–30). Berlin, Germany: Language Science Press.

Fox, W. (2018). Can integrated titles improve the viewing experience?: Investigating the impact of subtitling on the reception and enjoyment of film using eye tracking and questionnaire data. Berlin, Germany: Language Science Press.

Fozooni, B. (2006). All translators are bastards! South African Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 281–298. doi:10.1177/008124630603600205

Gambier, Y. (2001). Les traducteurs face aux écrans: Une élite d’experts. In F. Chaume & R. Agost (Eds.), La traducción en los medios audiovisuales (pp. 91–114). Castelló de la Plana, Spain: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.

Gile, D. (1995). Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.8(1st)

González Davies, M. (Ed.). (2003). Secuencias: Tareas para el aprendizaje interactivo de la traducción especializada. Barcelona, Spain: Octaedro.

González Davies, M. (2004). Multiple voices in the translation classroom: Activities, tasks and projects. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.54

Gouadec, D. (2003). Notes on translator training (Replies to a questionnaire). In A. Pym, C. Fallada, J. Ramón Biau, & J. Orenstein (Eds.), Innovation and e-learning in translator training (pp. 11–19). Tarragona, Spain: Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Retrieved from http://www.intercultural.urv.cat/media/upload/domain_317/arxius/Innovation/innovation_book.pdf Granell, X. (2011). Teaching video game localisation in audiovisual translation courses at university. The Journal of Specialised Translation, 16. Retrieved from http://www.jostrans.org/issue16/art_granell.pdf

Greco, G. M. (2016). On accessibility as a human right, with an application to media accessibility. In A. Matamala & P. Orero (Eds.), Researching audio description: New approaches (pp. 11–33). London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-56917-2_2

Greco, G. M. (2018). The case for accessibility studies. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 1(1), 204–232. Retrieved from http://www.jatjournal.org/index.php/jat

Green, Z. (2004, November 20). Lessons from a master. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/nov/20/highereducation.film1

Hurtado Albir, A. (1999). Enseñar a traducir: Metodología en la formación de traductores e intérpretes. Madrid, Spain: Edelsa.

Hurtado Albir, A. (2015). The acquisition of translation competence: Competences, tasks, and assessment in translator training. Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 60(2), 256–280. doi:10.7202/1032857ar

James, H. (1998). Screen translation training and European co-operation. In Y. Gambier (Ed.), Translating for the media: Papers from the international conference Languages & the media, Berlin, November 22–23, 1996 (pp. 243–258). Turku, Finland: University of Turku, Centre for Translation and Interpreting.

Jankowska, A., Di Giovanni, E., Kruger, J-L., Pedersen, J., Reviers, N., & Romero-Fresco, P. (2018). What is this thing called Journal of Audiovisual Translation? Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 1(1), 1–7. Retrieved from http://www.jatjournal.org/index.php/jat

Kajzer-Wietrzny, M., & Tymczyńska, M. (2015). Devising a systematic approach to examination marking criteria for audiovisual translation: A case study from Poland. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 9(3), 342–355. doi:10.1080/1750399X.2015.1100400

Kelly, D. (2010). Curriculum. In Y. Gambier & L. van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of Translation Studies (Vol. 1, pp. 87–93). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/hts.1.cur1

Kennedy, M. (2011). Module booklet: Making films. London.

Kiraly, D. (1995). Pathways to translation: Pedagogy and process. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.

Kiraly, D. (2000). A Social constructivist approach to translator education: Empowerment from theory to practice. Manchester, England: St. Jerome.

Lambourne, A. (2012, November). Climbing the Production Chain. Paper presented atLanguages and The Media: 9th International Conference & Exhibition on Language Transfer in Audiovisual Media. Berlin, Germany.

Longo, R. (2017). A Conversation with Tessa Dwyer on the Risky Business of Subtitling, Film Quarterly, 71(2). Retrieved from https://filmquarterly.org/2017/12/04/a-conversation-with-tessa-dwyer-on-the-risky-business-of-speaking-in-subtitles-revaluing-screen-translation

Longoria, Á. (Director). (2012). Hijos de las nubes: La última colonia [Documentary]. Spain: Morena Films.

Marleau, L. (1982). Les sous-titres... un mal nécessaire. Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 27(3), 271–285. doi:10.7202/003577ar

Martínez Sierra, J. J. (2008). Hacia una enseñanza más completa de la traducción audiovisual. Tonos: Revista de estudios filológicos, 16(1). Retrieved from http://www.um.es/tonosdigital/znum16/secciones/estudios-11-Tradaudiovisual.htm

Matamala, A. (2008). Teaching voice-over: A practical approach. In J. Díaz Cintas (Ed.), The didactics of audiovisual translation (pp. 115–128). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.77.12mat

Neves, J. (2008). Training in subtitling for the d/Deaf and the Hhard-of-hearing. In J. Diaz Cintas (Ed.), The didactics of audiovisual translation (pp. 171–189). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/btl.77.17nev

Nord, C. (1991). Text analysis in translation: Theory, methodology, and didactic application of a model for translation-oriented text analysis. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi.

Nornes, M. (2007). Cinema Babel: Translating global cinema. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Puntoni, L. (Director). (2018). Acquario [Short film]. Italy: Mediterraneo Cinematografica.

Robinson, D. (1997). Becoming a translator: An accelerated course. London, England: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203441138

Robinson, D. (2003). Becoming a translator: An introduction to the theory and practice of translation (2nd ed.). London, England: Routledge.

Rodgers, L. (Director). (2010). The Progression of Love [Short film]. United Kingdom: Luke Rodgers Films. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/28053425.

Romero-Fresco, P. (Director). (2012). Joining the dots [Documentary]. United Kingdom: Sunday Films.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2013). Accessible filmmaking: Joining the dots between audiovisual translation, accessibility and filmmaking. Journal of Specialized Translation, 20, 201–223. Retrieved from http://www.jostrans.org/issue20/art_romero.php.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2017). Accessible filmmaking in documentaries. In J. J. Martínez Sierra & B. Cerezo Merchán (Eds.), inTRAlinea Special Issue: Building bridges between Film Studies and Translation Studies. Retrieved from www.intralinea.org/specials/building_bridges

Romero-Fresco, P. (2018a). Eye tracking, subtitling and accessible filmmaking. In T. Dwyer, C. Perkins, S. Redmond, & J. Sita (Eds.), Seeing into screens eye tracking and the moving image (pp. 235–258). London, England: Bloomsbury Academic. doi:10.5040/9781501329012.0019

Romero-Fresco, P. (2018b). In support of a wide notion of media accessibility: Access to content and access to creation. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 1(1) 187–204.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2019). Accessible filmmaking: Integrating translation and accessibility into the filmmaking process. London, England: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780429053771

Romero-Fresco, P. (2020). The accessible filmmaker and the global film. MonTI: Monographs in Translation and Interpreting, 11.

Romero-Fresco, P., & Fryer, L. (2018). The accessible filmmaking guide. London, England: Archer’s Mark.

Şerban, A. (2012). Translation as alchemy: the aesthetics of multilingualism in film. MonTI: Monographs in Translation and Interpreting, 4, 39–63. doi:10.6035/MonTI.2012.4.2

Simonton, K. (2005). Cinematic creativity and production budgets: Does money make the movie? Journal of Creative Behaviour, 39(1), 1–15. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/content/qt9rv1c5q7/qt9rv1c5q7.pdf; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21626057

Spinney, J., & Middleton, P. (Directors). (2016). Notes on Blindness [Documentary]. United Kingdom: Archer’s Mark.

Spinney, J., & Middleton, P. (Directors). (2019) Chaplin [Documentary]. United Kingdom: Archer’s Mark.

Vandendaele, B. (Producer), & Van Dam, D. (Director). (2013). De weg van alle vlees [Short film]. Belgium: Bekke Films.

Vienne, J. (1994). Toward a pedagogy of translation in situation. Perspectives: Studies in Translation Theory and Practice, 2(1), 51–59. doi:10.1080/0907676X.1994.9961222

Waddington, C. (2000). Estudio comparativo de diferentes métodos de evaluación de traducción general. Madrid, Spain: Universidad Pontificia Comillas .

Zabalbeascoa, P. (2001). La traducción de textos audiovisuales y la investigación traductológica. In F. Chaume & R. Agost (Eds.), La traducción en los medios audio-visuales (pp. 49–56). Castellón de la Plana, Spain: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.